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But it was quickly mired in controversy when Karzai protested the name and accused the Taliban of using the occasion to set up a government in exile. Trenton, NJ. In all these cases, these images are accompanied by an identity assigned to Caribe and its people by those agents and which is opposed to the identity caribbeans create. In one instance, some people threw a glass bottle at us," he says. What university do you go to? Antigamente, quem tocava essas coisas era mais respeitado. Are you a student? Therefore engaging in a process, which I have termed Phonographic Synthesis. Can I take your number? But the country has changed so much. The unclothed female body of real Rastafari was put on public display for an international audience See Fig. I think this will bring them down in the long run. Can I use your phone? Revista Os Caminhos da Terra, v.

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Death Dubldo é um filme americano de suspense e terror de dirigido por Adam Wingard. A Chegada 7. Eles podem escolher entre abandonar seus poderes e se tornarem humanos ou continuar com os poderes e permanecerem excluídos. Mesmo assim, é uma grande obra. Mogilev Diariamente navegamos na web e procuramos por novos arquivos. Ouvido Musical.

Brasil, DVD 75 min : son. Regueiros regueiros. Tribo de Jah reggae roots. O poder simbólico. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, Variedades de história cultural. Joseph Ki-Zerbo coord. In:National Geographic, v. Pedagogia do oprimido. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, Broken Spears:A maasai journey. London: Material, Poétique de la relation. Dreadlocks the time is now compilation. The Gladiators. Kingston: Joe Gibbs Studio, História social do jazz. História: novos objetos.

Rio de Janeiro: Francisco Alves, We Are a Warrior. Mango, UPC: Um trekking com os masais. Revista Os Caminhos da Terra, v. Axum, Etiópia. In: Olodum Continental, In:Horizontes antropológicos, Porto Alegre, Ano 4, n. Rastafari: identidade e hibridismo cultural na Jamaica, Da terra das primaveras à ilha do amor: reggae, lazer e identidade cultural.

The paper will show that copyright and intellectual property rights were never a priority of the music business in Jamaica, which featured instead, a system of non-economic motivation and communal authorship of music which assisted in fuelling creativity rather than retarding it. The Copyright Act will be examined in order to analyse the shift towards ensuring adequate protection and remuneration for creators of copyrighted materials.

The paper will demonstrate that the accelerated growth in copyright protection and rights management in Jamaica after was more of a response to international pressure from industrialised nations who were more interested in controlling the piracy of the intellectual property of the large entertainment conglomerates in North America and Europe than protecting individual creator intellectual work.

El artículo demuestra que el crecimento acelerado del gerenciamento de la protección de los derechos autorales Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol. The story of copyright protection within the Jamaican music industry does not start with the enactment of the new Copyright Act in Contrary to the observations of many commentators BRADLEY, ; HEBDIGE, , who have lamented the lack of proper copyright protection in Jamaica and see it as a major deterrent to the economic well being of the music business due the absence of any proper rights management mechanism.

The fact is that Jamaica has had a copyright law since , an adaptation of the Copyright Act of Britain, which was passed by the colonies of the British Empire, of which Jamaica was a part. However, in colonial Jamaica, copyright protection was intended for the colonial masters, whose composers and musicians needed protection for such works that were exploited in the colonies.

In , the Performing Rights Society PRS was formed in Britain to collect money for the public use of copyrighted works in an effort to curtail the unauthorized use of these works.

A branch of the PRS was also set up in Jamaica, again to secure the rights of English creators as part of the Imperial copyright system created by the Copyright Act of With the start of the indigenous music business in the s, many of the early creators were not sufficiently knowledgeable about the protection of copyright and the pecuniary benefits it had the potential to accrue.

In addition, it must be noted that the music business in Jamaica did not start with an abundance of original works. During the s when the music really took off commercially, a significant number of the early songs recorded, were covers of American Rhythm and Blues, Blues and British pop. This practice had started with the pioneer producers, who as sound system operators imported American and British records for consumption at dances.

With the mushrooming of recordings in Kingston, many singers did not have sufficient proficiency as songwriters. In order to fill the gap, the top producers handpicked records from North America and later Britain for them to cover. This practice was largely enabled by the non-enforcement of copyright legislations, which protected owners of copyright from the infringement of their works. Additionally, infringement went on relatively unnoticed as the American and British publishers and administrators of these rights did not know generally of the existence of these covers and even when they did know, the market was viewed as so insignificant that the returns were not Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol.


The hook is repeated several times during the song, becoming the most significant part of the song. Through crystallization, vocal styles of American and British artists such as the Impressions, the Drifters, Al Green, Tom Jones and the Temptations were imitated and subsequently developed by Jamaican artists into a distinctive indigenous vocal aesthetic.

The three- and four-part harmony structure of groups such as the Impressions and the Temptations were widely copied by Jamaican groups such as the Paragons, the Wailers, the Uniques, the Gaylads and the Techniques. Creative Commune The dynamic nature of the Jamaican content could not be explained exclusively by the above mentioned processes.

While phonographic dissemination and crystallization might have jump-started the creative process of popular music production, artists in Kingston, eventually drew on the rich tradition of the Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol. Mento the popular music form before the emergence of Ska , and other folk and religious music expressions, such as, Revivalism, Pocomania, Kumina and Nyabinghi, began to emerge in ska, rock steady and reggae.

This altered the composition structure, resulting in a deviation from the standard song structure of verse-chorus in favour of Afro-European retentions which also incorporated a through-composed structure, where neither words nor music repeat, and also a strophic structure, where the tune repeats several times with new words SPITZER and WALTERS, Early songs composed by groups such as Toots and the Maytals, Burning Spear and later Culture, fall into this category.

These acts created new forms of composition styles by fusing the various styles of Anglo-American, African and creolized Caribbean methods of song construction. Therefore engaging in a process, which I have termed Phonographic Synthesis. The standard verse-chorus-verse structure had been abandon by Hibbert for the unstructured format where he has three short verses. The verses are repeated once. Treatment of the hook is used to exhibit vocal dexterity in the phrasing and delivery.

This suggests a rejection of the Anglo-American style of pop song composition, which was the standard format for the main producers such as Coxsone Dodd, Duke Reid, Bunny Lee and Prince Buster. Interview, The Open Domain These new forms of popular song composition and production were done in what I have termed an Open Domain environment. This was an environment devoid of copyright enforcement and, more significantly, was characterized by the exploitation of creators who were not aware of copyright protection nor was concerned with its implications with regard to its economic benefits.

Copyright protection was not paramount among the creative class who practiced their craft in a communal environment. This was perhaps one of the African retentions of the working class black majority who made up the creative class. This traditional practice ran counter to the Anglo-European notion of property rights, the very basis of copyright legislation. In the colonial context, in which the new music was evolving, black emerging entertainers from the inner slums of Kingston, placed a higher premium on the notion of being a star rather than Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol.

As mentioned before, since the advent of an indigenous recording industry in Jamaica, infringement of copyrighted works and piracy were an integral part of the structure. Producers and performers received no permission to cover the songs they freely used and furthermore, they did not credit the author of the copyright protected material. Certainly this was a clear violation of copyright law. However, no serious attention or consequence resulted from these infringement practices, due largely to several factors including the small size of the market, communal song construction which drew from sources such as the bible, folk tales and nursery rhymes and also the practice of phonographic dissemination.

Local producers were not spared these acts of infringement. There were several known cases of producers covering rhythm tracks of fellow producers. In fact, almost every major producer from the 60s up to the present copied the Studio One catalogue of rhythms. Coxsone allowed this to happen despite the fact that he knew he could stop this infringement.

A plausible reason for allowing this infringement was that he was also aware of the disquiet among musicians and vocalists who accused him of not advancing them or paying regular royalties from record sales. Once a producer made a hit rhythm, other producers would do a similar version of the rhythm without fear of prosecution. In the Open Domain system this practice was never seen as piracy or infringement of material controlled by copyright. In fact, many of these rhythms were never registered and hence, were not protected 2.

Symbol creators viewed the unauthorized copying of rhythms as a means of paying homage to a great piece of work. The use of the rhythm for a hit song created an opportunistic motive. Many scholars have noted the exploitation of the Jamaican symbol creators who were cheated out of their intellectual property by unscrupulous producers. However, this was not unique to Jamaica as a similar tradition of stealing was perpetrated by the big capitalist record companies in the US on a similar unsuspecting group of rhythm and blues and rock and roll African-American Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol.

Many songwriters were robbed of their creation due to circumstances similar to those outlined in the earlier Jamaican experience. The big record giants in the US exploited performers, many of whom died penniless. KELLY, Simon Frith also notes: The pop industry is organized around music as composition — American copyright law protects composers rather than performers. It is songwriters who get royalties when records are sold or broadcast, not their performers, and black singers who were popular in the s and s were systematically cheated out of their due returns.

Coxsone Dodd, one of the pioneer producers and studio owners registered his publishing company, Jamaica Recording and Publishing Company Jamrec , by the early s to administer the copyright on his sound recordings, literary and Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol. Other top producers such as Byron Lee, Bunny Lee and Winston Riley quickly learnt the benefits of copyright ownership and secured the rights to their sound recordings and also the literary and musical works in the recordings they produced, despite the fact that they did not create most of these works.

Simultaneity The Open domain environment persisted until the s in the Jamaican music industry. Some later secured protection through signing with overseas record labels which allowed them access to reputable lawyers and managers who guided them.

Marley, according to his former accountant, Colin Leslie, felt the deal was bad and when he signed with Island Records, he found a way to circumvent that contract. Through this contractual arrangement, Cliff was able to secure ownership of the rights to his works.

The bands Third World and Inner Circle were also all signed to publishing companies overseas, securing this same privilege. The group and Judge subsequently found themselves in a legal battle due to claims from different parties, to the musical works in the recording. The battle is still not settled. It is clear that within the Jamaican music industry there was a duality of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic practices in the creative process. This was a feature which has not been given enough attention from scholars in ethnomusicology, cultural studies and anthropology.

On one level the hegemonic pop style of the culture industry centered on a white mainstream audience fully entrenched in a capitalistic power structure. In addition, the creation of stars in the Kingston music industry was a major motivation for musician and performers.

Emerging from a state of anonymity and oppression by a colonial and neocolonial system, black under-privileged youth were concerned more with establishing an identity, a concern Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol. Star status moved these performers and musicians into another realm of celebrity, glamour and fame. Simon Frith notes: The relationship of musicians and fan is not just a matter of success and glamour.

A Call to Action During this period, many composers and producers, led by the Jamaica Federation of Musicians JFM and Affiliated Artistes Union, began lobbying for a proper copyright law to ensure protection for the creators of original works.

I must commend Sonny Bradshaw, who started the lobby which was continued by Headley Jones and me. Bradshaw felt this was the first step towards recognising the Jamaican author. In , the lobbyists for a new copyright act had some success when a new act was tabled in Parliament.

Attorney- at-law, Earl Witter, during an interview, stated that the new law was not adequate enough and took too long to be tabled in Parliament. Bradshaw also states that the law needed upgrading by the time it was ready to be tabled in Parliament and suggested to the government not to attempt to pass this outdated act. The country however, became a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization in Towards a New Act Based on continued lobbying and the intervention of international agencies, the Copyright Unit was established in This unit was responsible for bringing together all the stakeholders, media, producers, authors and composers to Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol.

This eventually led to the passing of the Copyright Law of This was followed by agreements between the U.

Through this agreement, Jamaica embarked on a total update of its intellectual property regime. Homegrown Societies Having enacted the Copyright Law of , Jamaica now had to move to the next stage. Hence, in a relatively short period, through the establishment of a national task force on collective administration of copyright, four collecting societies were established between and The process was the final stroke towards re-intermediation in the Jamaican music industry value chain, consistent with a capitalist driven best practices agenda and the realignment of the counter-hegemonic movement, which the Open Domain environment fostered for so long in the music industry.

International Cohersion or National Consolidation? Champions of copyright saw these developments as a positive move towards the protection of rights for owners. However, one wonders if the passage of the copyright laws of had more to do with overseas interests, that is the U.

The s saw a serious outcry from major record companies, film studios and cable content providers over the piracy and infringement of copyright materials, which took place in the developing nations, including China and the Caribbean. The rules of the Berne Convention were quite simple — each country was accorded one vote without taking account of the relative economic power of that country or of the works produced by neither that country nor whether the country was a net consumer or net producer of works.

As a result, over time, as more developing nations became members to the Berne convention they formed voting blocks which were able to outvote the developed countries on resolutions.


One consequence of this was the Stockholm Protocol in , which gave developing countries broad access rights to copyright materials. Sensing the opportunity for U. The long-term goal of that task force was the placing of copyright and similar negotiations within the GATT.

In essence, under these arrangements, the United States identifies countries which have regulatory regimes which the United States considers to be inappropriate and enters negotiations with those countries to modify those regulatory regimes. By targeting the individual countries beforehand, the U. The attack was not only at the governmental level but also on the individual.

In the 70s there were a few lawsuits against Jamaican producers by major publishers in the United States. This was done in the sprit of the Open Domain where attributions and permission for use of work is an alien concept. The song went on the national chart in Britain, at which point it also entered the culture industry and the capitalist structure of the international music industry. The owners of the copyright declared infringement of their work. This resulted in a lawsuit against Gibbs, which literally put Gibbs out of the music business.


Conclusion Copyright is a legislative monopoly, which was a direct response to the development of modern printing. The need for copyright was defended as protection for authors and creators of original works. It argued that whatever a man created from his creative endeavours, he had the right to protection of that right and by extension an economic right to exploit his creation to his benefit.

Copyright, however, was also a tool for censorship and was antithetical to the notion of freedom of speech and creativity. Copyright continues to be a legislative monopoly, which is not sensitive to the right of the real creators of cultural production.

When one examines the economic structure of the copyright discourse, one realizes that the creators are among the last to earn and earns the least in any work. Will compliance to requirements of globalization reap the necessary economic benefits, which copyright supporters are hoping for?

Without consistent economic motivations the Jamaican creative imagination has never stalled. Copyright owners have been strident in their defense of their intellectual property and have made moves to extend the life of copyright to life of the author from 50 to 70 years Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act U. This is an issue that is now on the table in Jamaica, following in the footsteps of the European Union. There have been a number of attempts to limit fair use privileges and to commodify works that are in the public domain.

There has also been aggressive copyright enforcement against sampling. With all this, one fears that copyright is fast becoming again a tool for censorship and monopolistic oppression. PALLAS LOREN, Some scholars have suggested the dissolution of copyright; due to its monopolistic control and the inability to police infringement due to the easy access that technology has imposed. Is this a proposition that would serve small nation states, like Jamaica, who for over a hundred years, have not been at the forefront of copyright control over cultural production?

How would this affect the great expectations of state agencies like the Jamaica Trade and Invest JTI and the Jamaica Intellectual Property Office JIPO that have been promulgating the economic windfall that the proper exploitation of intellectual property will afford?

It is certainly hard to argue with the impact of copyright as an economic juggernaut. However, not enough attention is placed on how copyright helps to constitute and reinforce media and cultural hegemony.

This changed in 3 This phrase is borrowed from Robert Kelly. Vol Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, June University of Minnesota Press, June The Purpose of Copyright.

O contato sensual e romanesco entre Sofía e Víctor Hugues oculta, em uma primeira leitura, muito sedutora, um contato mais problemâtico e decissivo entre outros corpos.

Palavras-chave: Cuba, Haiti, Carpentier, El Siglo de las Luces Abstract Haiti and Cuba obviously share many historical, cultural, literary and anthropological features, pointing to a necessary fraternity and suggesting that solidarity and integration are desirable.

Both these countries experienced a revolution, but each with specific meanings. In the case of Haiti, the revolutionary process that had such an influence on collective consciousnesses has underlying causes. In Cuba, circumstances helped the craved independence and revolution to come about, and actually supported a position of resistance that was regarded as exemplary in the geopolitical reality and continental memory. Our purpose is not to investigate the writing of Caribbean history, but to bring to light in the works of Alejo Carpentier — the novelist who raised the awareness of a turning point in that history — the forms of contemporary historical consciousness.

Set in the remote context of the Caribbean where echos of the French Revolution are being heard, El siglo de las luces is one of the most written about historical novels of the great Cuban author.

Criticism has not dwelt enough, as we propose to show, on the function of the body in the process leading to the historical and revolutionary awakening of the protagonists. The sensuality of the contact between Sofia and Victor Hugues, though appealing on the first reading, in fact obscures a more problematic and decisive contact between bodies.

An heiress of the Havanan upper class, Sofia has to decide whether she will entrust the physical health of a member of the family circle to one who, although a member of the medical profession, is also a black man. Nuestro artículo no pretende tergiversar la escritura de la historia de las Antillas, sino enfocar en la obra de Alejo Carpentier, el novelista que provocó la conciencia de un momento clave de la historia del Caribe. Sin embargo, la crítica no enfocó bastante, como pretendemos demostrarlo, en la función del cuerpo en los procesos de toma de conciencia histórica y revolucionaria de los protagonistas.

La Historia me arrastra, podría decir el novelista latinoamericano de hoy. Alejo Carpentier. La novela latinoamericana en vísperas de un nuevo siglo. México:Siglo XXI, Semejante afirmación se complace en la paradoja. Limitaremos nuestro estudio a unos pasajes decisivos de El siglo de las luces, una novela histórica por definición ya que dos siglos separan el tiempo del relato y el de la escritura, pero la novela se merece dicha apelación por muchos otros motivos.

Afirman al mismo tiempo un proyecto de escritura explícito o por lo menos insistente, comprensible en la perspectiva de un combate no proclamado, pero por eso mismo fundamental, para la conciencia histórica o la historicidad del mundo social y político, por medios literarios. Como género fundamentalemente histórico, la novela es la forma literaria mejor adaptada para la expresión de trayectorias individuales.

Por eso mismo empezaremos nuestro estudio por la instancia narrativa del personaje, que nos parece expresar una primera dimensión de la conciencia histórica: la historicidad individual.

Vitalidad individual y orden colonial Los protagonistas del Siglo presentan como principal característica una importante plasticidad. El Víctor Hugues monstruoso que Esteban le describe a Sofía de vuelta de España es el producto de una trayectoria, de un devenir, un curso histórico donde el tiempo individual se entrecruza con el social que todo no permitía entrever.

No se le puede seriamente afectar un valor absoluto y definitivo, una esencia maléfica sino a costa de una ilusión retrospectiva total. Se olvida ya de todo principio, le invade una ambición y un escepticismo demoldedor. Victorioso hasta la vanidad, antes de ser vencido por la Causa que traicionó para vencer, creía hacer la historia sin darse cuenta de hasta qué punto la historia lo hacía a él.

Sofía, que los horrorosos relatos de Esteban precipitan por segunda vez en los brazos de Víctor, pasa por muchas etapas contradictorias sin que ninguna de ellas pueda definir propiamente su perfil moral, fuera de las circunstancias.

En cuanto a Esteban, preservado de las responsabilidades criminales directas por sus posiciones y su postura de observador crítico, ilustra de forma ejemplar la plasticidad sicológica del personaje en la prosa de Alejo Carpentier.

Esta primera observación nos invita a examinar los lazos que los personajes tejen con su contexto social. Los jóvenes herederos, los varones especialmente, temen una vida mezquina, que endilgue su deseo de aventura.

El juego subversivo no es siquiera un carnaval, es como mucho una mascarada de jovencitos cuyo deseo no tiene objeto, un derivativo imaginario de herederos desocupados. Este ocio evita la prueba de lo real. La subversión verbal y protegida de los jóvenes tiene que enfrentarse con una prueba real gracias a la irrupción intrusiva de Víctor Hugues.

El protagonista va a desempeñar con los jóvenes personajes el papel del iniciador. Si es evidente constatarlo, el acontecimiento que el episodio de la cura de Esteban representa en la diégesis pocas veces se contempla en su significación profunda. En efecto, la negación de Sofía de confiar a un médico negro, Ogé, la salud de su primo, es decir de un miembro del cuerpo familiar, no procede de un sencillo prejuicio racial, de orden mental o ideológico.

Es su cuerpo el que se niega enteramente a la herejía inconfesada y el texto lo subraya oponiendo el orden intelectual de la especulación generosa con el de los prejuicios incorporados. La escenificación literaria de esta negación menos intelectual que física2 prefigura claramente la imperiosa determinación adquirida por el cuerpo, incorporada bajo el efecto de la violencia simbólica del juego social al que Pierre Bourdieu nombra habitus.

Con este concepto, el sociólogo y antropólogo francés cuestionó las categorías tan cómodas y a menudo moralizantes de individuo y sociedad. Pero el hombre de ciencia siempre sostuvo que los novelistas saben desvelar verdades que las ciencias humanas demuestran a duras pruebas.

En El siglo de las luces es la verdad de un cuerpo determinado por el orden social colonial lo que se expresa. Por un choque físico, por una prueba palpable es cómo se rompe el nudo gordiano que cohibe las vitalidades juveniles.

El primer capítulo de El Siglo de las luces aparece como el lugar del cuestionamiento de las certidumbres, de la disipación de las apariencias? Tenía Esteban una naturaleza, enclenque? Era esencialmente un enfermo? La irrupción de Víctor Hugues y de Ogé en la vida de Esteban y de Sofía toma la significación de una subversión auténtica del orden colonial y de la ideología esencialista sostenida por la fría razón del padre. Una ensordecedora revelación le da al pasado de Sofía un sentido.

Aclarando sus propios sentimientos que habían permanecido intuitivos e inexplicables, le concede una identidad, un conocimiento elemental pero íntimamente vivido de sus orígenes. Ahora bien, la revelación del secreto señala al mismo tiempo el renacer de Esteban y la liberación de las perspectivas de porvenir para los dos personajes.

Resolución específica de una tensión entre conciencia identitaria y deseo de alteridad, la historia de estos personajes ya puede empezar de verdad para intentar unirse con el devenir colectivo que puede darle sentido. Epopeya e imaginario histórico Primera dimensión de la conciencia histórica y condición de posibilidad de la historia, la toma de distancia con el esencialismo, la aceptacion de la alteridad consistió en una prueba del cuerpo.

Superada ya la enfermedad, Esteban conoce una explosión de los sentidos: sus carreras nocturnas son un primer asalto del mundo cuerpo a cuerpo. Y desde aquel momento fundador, la conexión por el imaginario entre la historia individual y la epopeya colectiva queda posibilitada. Por el juego, por el teatro y la alusión a las grandes figuras de la historia antigua, Víctor Hugues sabe encauzar el deseo de aventuras experimentado por los jóvenes personajes, Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol.

Contiene toda la energía de la esperanza mística fundada no ya en una actitud ascética sino de una honda experiencia de desapego de la propiedad privada.

Sin ser consecuencia del incendio de su hacienda, la aventura política de Víctor Hugues sucede después de la desaparición de todos sus bienes.

Vivificación, arranque vital o voluntad de potencia, El Siglo de las luces declina diferentes modos de exaltación del ser por la participación épica. Habría mucho que decir a propósito de la dialéctica de la conciencia histórica y de la acción política. La alusión mediante su seudónimo y el título a la obra del jesuita chileno Manuel de Lacunza y Díaz señala una voluntad de afirmar los puentes entre el cristianismo heterodoxo, milenarista en particular y la mentalidad revolucionaria, por no decir el origen de esta en aquella.


En este momento del relato, Esteban conoce la decepción, que se traduce en términos de rechazo del tiempo de la historia: El luto…volvería a crear la atmósfera de otros días. Se regresaría, acaso, al desorden de antaño, como si el tiempo se hubiera revertido Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol.

Es importante apuntar que dicha disposición mental aparece en el texto relacionada a un proyecto muy egoísta o narcicista del personaje, sin precedente en la novela. Pero este deseo no se describe como el del ser amado. Su amor por Víctor Hugues le queda totalmente subordinado, y se desvanece lógicamente cuando el hombre de Bonaparte pretende no sólo conducir sino justificar la reacción y el restablecimiento de la esclavitud.

Y de lo que aquí se trata es del imaginario histórico, de una imagen moderna del mito. Sobre las bases de una mínima conciencia de una trayectoria personal, el imaginario histórico motiva las almas.


Esta forma superior de amor inspira la utopía de Sofía. Antes de concluir en la segunda dimensión de la conciencia histórica, en el arranque épico de los personajes de la novela, señalaremos que la narración no excluye del proceso a otras instancias. El lector en efecto es a su vez directamente invitado a mirar en perspectiva, ampliando así la significación Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol. Y el narrador da su voz a los conquistadores convencidos de llegar a su meta en una hipotiposis fascinante, en el discurso directo libre, donde prevalece la identificación entre el conquistador imaginado, el narrador y el mismo lector: No se destinaban ya las maravillas próximas a los nietos de los invasores.

Eran estos ojos que tengo, los que las contemplarían. La epopeya nunca escrita, el gran drama histórico es un potente vector de conciencia histórica en un lector invitado a participar de los movimientos seculares, concediéndose el punto de vista distanciado y abarcador que permite contemplar el génesis y el término.

La narración subraya el sueño milenarista en los proyectos de Amiral, un sueño todavía perceptible entre los Encyclopedistas, una pesadilla de la que Esteban despierta difícilmente al volver a su casa, como víctima de un inmenso cansancio, de una decepción saturada de conciencia histórica. Novela histórica, El siglo de las luces no ignora nada de los recursos ilimitados del imaginario de los tiempos históricos. Por ahora, sólo hemos analizado dos aspectos constitutivos de la historicidad en El siglo de las luces.

La conciencia se expande en la contemplación de unas causas de envergadura política o universal, propicias a las perspectivas de participación cósmica, equivalentes del orden místico cristiano y de las epopeyas de la Antiguëdad. A las dimensiones existenciales y épicas de la historicidad se añade una tercera, de naturaleza metódica y crítica. El pacto de lectura padecería de la multiplicación, propia de la historiografía, de las conjeturas, hipótesis, comentarios, confirmaciones recíprocas de las fuentes y testimonios.


El relato de su investigación concluye la novela. Cómo es posible? Una primera reflexión metodológica empieza en este pasaje: Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol. Si los testimonios oculares son necesarios, no basta con haber visto para conservar una memoria. Formular la hipótesis, incluso maquinalmente como en el caso de un memorialista, contribaixare a dibujar un campo de posibilidades en el cual se restituyen las voluntades y las elecciones de los individuos atrapados en un contexto social.

Primera constatación metodológica: escribir la historia no se limita a establecer hechos elementales. Cabe saber interpretarlos.


Como en la investigación judicial, Carlos pretende colectar informaciones metódicamente. El aspecto fragmentario de la documentación puede aparecer como un inconveniente. Sin embargo, desvelando en cada etapa los límites de la fuente de información considerada, el texto muestra qué partido puede sacarle el historiador.

De los obreros, del médico y del librero, que dan testimonio cada uno de un aspecto de la existencia madrileña de Sofía y de Esteban, Carlos aprende verdades independientes y que se pueden confrontar metódicamente. Pero tales son los límites de la historia: Carlos quisiera conocer el fondo de una relación afectiva entre Sofía y Esteban.

Como aquel cuadro que tanto le fascina a Esteban, el motivo recurrente de la Explosión en una catedral, cuyas interpretaciones son tantas, la novela de Alejo Carpentier admite sin lugar a dudas muchas lecturas.

Notas 1 Víctor qui connaît en effet bien des succès mérite bien son nom. El siglo de las luces. La Habana: Letras Cubanas, Africa, for all practical purposes, was the land of savagery and continuous darkness. No history. No culture.

No literature… But a history of subjugation sets in motion a process of its own negation: a history of resistance. The fact that no people ever existed without a history seems obvious, even in predominantly oral cultures and so-called pre-historic times, but colonial discourse was so jaundiced and biased that it became arrogantly oblivious to this commonplace reality, and consequently denigrated and dismissed African and African Diasporic narratives and epistemologies.

As elsewhere in the postcolonial world, resistance to European hegemonic structures slavery, colonialism and to neo-colonialism in the Caribbean is multifaceted: oral traditions, martial practices, syncretic African religions, and open militancy, among other things, form an integral part of this tradition of resistance to tyranny. Stories of slaves who committed suicide on the high seas during the Atlantic Crossing and of those who snuffed life out of their offspring or loved ones to save them from the brutality of the plantation system speak to that human yearning for freedom and resistance to the inhumane treatment meted out to the slaves.

And because this passage is coerced, in most cases, it often breeds resistance. In what follows I provide a postcolonial reading of both novels as instances of resistance and self-representation as postcolonial interventions where Lovelace deploys what he terms bacchanal aesthetics 1 the aesthetics of the Revista Brasileira do Caribe, Brasília, Vol.

In fact, as we shall see, both novels resist such a reading, even as they display a variety of acts of resistance within the national ethos. Bill Ashcroft et al. This never-ending process of decolonization is made more complex when the colonial apparatus, structures, and ideologies remained intact after formal independence, a paradoxical situation, played out in both works, that poses a serious threat to any dream of total emancipation and decolonization.

Or is Carnival, the focus of Dragon, the last resort and futile attempt to claim an identity denied by the colonial powers? The Wine of Astonishment The language of ritual, of dance and music, of ordinary forms of self-expression among the villagers of Bonasse serves not merely to repudiate the hegemony of the existing order, it also serves as a vehicle for self-representation and self-realization.